Elucidating the mechanism

Fast-acting insulin aspart (faster aspart) is a novel formulation of insulin aspart containing two additional excipients: niacinamide, to increase early absorption, and L-arginine, to optimize stability.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of niacinamide on insulin aspart absorption and to investigate the mechanism of action underlying the accelerated absorption.

Animals were housed with 12-h day–night cycles with lights on at am, in a holding room with target temperatures of 21±2 °C and target relative humidity from 30–70%.

Pigs were single housed in enriched pens with the possibility of social interaction.

The composition of the formulations are shown in Table .

Formulations with 1-methyl-niacinamide, an analogue of niacinamide, were also administered.

Limiting excessive postprandial glucose (PPG) excursions is a major challenge in the treatment of diabetes.

Postprandial hyperglycemia contributes to overall glycemia, as determined by glycated hemoglobin (Hb A).

Additionally, niacinamide acts as a vasodilator (), and a possible increase in local blood flow at the injection site may also augment insulin absorption.Animal experiments were carried out in accordance with the Danish Act on Experiments on Animals, the Appendix A of ETS 123 and EU Directive 2010/63.A procedure project license was issued by the national authority.Tissue samples measuring ~2 x 2 cm were excised at 0 min (acute), 2, 5, 15 or 60 min after injection and immediately frozen in 2-methyl-butane.To evaluate whether niacinamide and 1-methyl-niacinamide were entirely confined within the excised tissue, 1 cm thick sections along the four edges of the 0 min (acute) sample were also excised.

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