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Sample stratigraphic cross section of rock units of the Gaillard Cut of the Panama Canal. Yet, these pieces have been rounded and broken by the flow of water, and are found along with many pebbles of similar size (1-3cm in diameter) and degree of rounding.Oldest rocks are on the bottom, with younger sequences forming on top. This suggests the fossil pieces were transported and sorted by some mechanism, most likely by a river, accumulating as part of the rock.The stratigraphic column reveals the majority of rock types in the area of the canal are (1) volcanic and (2) sedimentary.Yet, volcanic tuffs and sedimentary rocks form in very different environments. The abundance of volcanic rocks suggest volcanism was common in Panama during the Miocene (~20 million years ago), around the same time that basins between the volcanos were filling with sediments.See full survey results at nowtoronto.com/love-and-sex-guide.
A cross section view often exhibits a vastly more complex picture than initially apparent on the surface. Sample geologic cross section, ‘step 2’ in analyzing the bedrock geology. This cross section was inferred using the bird’s eye geologic bedrock map and information about the tilt (in structural geology called the dip) of various rock units. (3) STRATIGRAPHIC COLUMN By analyzing structural relationships, geologists can move from a two-dimensional map to visualizing 3-D relationships between different rock units in cross section. Fossils uncovered in the Miocene-age Canal formations give clues to the environment in which these fossils accumulated (to a geologist, the ‘depositional environment’).
Geologic maps are created by mapping the bedrock as it changes. The majority of rock types that outcrop in the area of the canal are early-Miocene (~20 million years old).
Bedrock geologic map of the formations that outcrop along the Panama Canal.
Each dot represents a person — with an inner-circle colour identifying gender and an outer-circle colour identifying sexual orientation.
Who’s dating whom in Toronto, and how often visualizes the 735 Torontonians who fully completed the survey.